THE 11TH HOUR
You know, when you look at the history of humanity, it's basically a relationship between the two most complicated systems on Earth: Human society and nature.
And whether people have, in fact, lived in a good balance in that regard. When they don't, they' re gone.
At the end of the day, when we all talk about saving the environment, in a way, it's misstated(说错) because the environment is going to survive.
We're the ones who may not survive. Or we may survive in a world we don't particularly wanna live in.
Our biosphere(生物圈) is sick. We have a planet that's behaving like an infected organism.
If you look at it from space, you see all these lights. And it's the lights of planet Earth, it's the lights of the people, but it's also almost like looking at an organism that has an infection on it that is forming a crust(外壳) of some kind.
Well, I don't only think that the biosphere is in trouble. I know it is. I just have to look around in
the environment in which I live.
What I hear in my dreams is generations in the future screaming back to us in time saying, "What are you
doing? Don't you see?"
We are at this critical point in time. We've evolved to be the leaders of our biological community. We are misleading. We are causing the devastation(毁灭) to our very foundation of our life system that has given
us birth. And we are ultimately(最终) committing suicide.
So as we destroy nature, we will be destroyed in the process. There's no escaping that conclusion.
Earth 's life-support system 's damaged. The human species at risk. Could this be true?
In this film, we 've reached out to independent experts on the frontlines of what could be the greatest challenge of our time: The collapse of our planet's ecosystems and our search for solutions to create a sustainable(可持续) future.
So if we look for the cause of this planetary(（似）行星的) destruction, what would we find?
We would find a global civilization created by the human mind. A mind that has evolved to have the ability to reflect back on ourselves to take stock of(3盘点；检查，评估) our own existence. A mind able to discover quantum(量；量子) physics, explore outer space and peer(凝视，注视) into our own DNA.
But beyond our stunning(极好的) intellectual and technological advances we would also see our large-scale impact on our home, planet Earth. Ecological disasters are rarely covered. But when they are, they're depicted(描述) as isolated incidents by the media.
But if we connect these events will we find a larger story that needs to be told? A human story. And more so than that a global understanding that takes into account(3重视，考虑) who we are and the state of our relationship to this planet, our only home.
Life on Earth is possible only because a number of parameters(参数) lie in certain very narrow ranges.
Some of these are clearly environmental. Like the Earth has the right temperature and pressure to have lived with water.
Creation is the universe. Creation is everything that we can see and probably a whole lot that we can't, probably more that we can't see. But it's what's about us and it's the relationship, this amazing web of life that we have here.
Well, Earth is a planet that's just far enough from the sun and has just enough of that atmosphere of a certain composition(作品，构成，和成为) that more heat stays here than radiates(发射) out to space. And the sun warms the planet and that heat radiates out.
There's gases(气体) in the atmosphere that have always trapped(诱骗，困住) some of that heat.
So we' re not an ice ball. Scientists have compared the different planets going away from the sun as being like the Goldilocks(金发姑娘) effect. There's one that's too cold, too warm and just right and we just happen to be there.
Forty million centuries ago, that a cell formed and that cell had a gene, and that gene is the password to every single other form of life there is.
And the amazing thing about the human body is it has one hundred trillion cells and 90 percent of them are not human cells. They're fungi and bacteria, microorganisms. And the thing that makes us human is not human. So within us is basically the back-story of life on Earth right to that first original cell 40 million centuries ago.
And if you could, for a moment, stop and feel what is happening in your body, there are six septillion things going on at the same time. That's a six with 24 zeros after it, okay, going on right now, right this instant, as you sit in your chair and then in the next instance within 10 seconds, a hundred more things have happened than in all the stars and planets and asteroids(小行星) in the known universe in your body, and that is called life.
Homo sapiens(2人), sapiens is an incredibly young pecies. We don't think of that. But we are. We came very late in the calendar year of the Earth.
You know, if the Earth calendar, you know, where it started in January 1th and now we're December 31 st.
We got here 15 minutes before midnight on December 31st and all of recorded history has blinked(眨眼) by in the last 60 seconds.
Perhaps the best description of what we are is, as Jared Diamond puts it: The third chimpanzee. There are two kinds of chimpanzees and there's us.
But in some ways, we are extraordinarily special. And the most obvious one is our extraordinary ability to make tools, our extraordinary ability to communicate, to have very detailed discussions with each other.
So we are fundamentally groups of animals randomly(随意地) scattered(（使）散开) throughout the planet slowly coalescing(联合，合并) in groups that are more powerful, larger. And very much conditioned(制约，使适应) by two essential characters: One is opportunism(机会主义) and the other one is greed. All the animals and vegetables are opportunistic(机会主义的) creatures. They do what's necessary for them to do in order to survive.
I think it was the human mind basically that threw us out of balance with the rest of nature.
The tragedy is that it was the human mind that was the key to our very survival.
Now, when you think that we evolved in Africa about 150,000 years ago and compared to other animals on the plains then, we weren't very impressive. We weren't very many or very big. We weren't gifted with special senses. The one thing, the key to our survival and our taking over the planet was the human brain.
But because the human mind invented the concept of a future, we're the only animal on the planet that actually was able to recognize we could affect the future by what we do today. We look ahead, recognize where the opportunities are, where the dangers lay, and choose accordingly to survive. That was a great survival strategy of our species.
If the human mind threw us out of balance thousands of years ago what changed in recent history? In the last century, we've dramatically increased our impact on planet Earth. One element has emerged that has made us even more destructive accelerating our disconnection and causing extensive damage to our climate and all other natural systems.
A fundamental illusion in the world is that people are separate from nature. When the reality is that we are part of nature. In fact, we are nature. That's probably the most fundamental misunderstanding in the world. That's causing all this havoc(浩劫).
I think one of the reasons why it's so difficult for people to get it that we're connected with nature and to even understand the fundamentals of ecoliteracy(生态知能) is because it flies in the face of the assumptions(假定) of our culture.
Our culture is built on the assumption that we are the superior life form on Earth, that we are separate from all other life forms, that we have been given dominion(统治) over all other life forms.
But even to think that we're separated from nature is somehow a thinking disorder. You can't be separated from nature.
Why we think that way is the interesting thing. What happens in the mind that likes to think that it's separated from nature? Does that mean that the mind, or the human being, thinks he's now more free?
>>>Reverend James Parks Morton
We're totally living in disharmony with the planet. Not just the planet, beyond the planet. We're far beyond the planet now. We're zooming around Mars and all of that exploration, which is marvelous(非凡的).
But it's not really affecting our attitudes. I think our attitudes are based on selfishness, based on the economic situation we have, based on the politics which we have. I mean, those are the--How many governments in the world have really taken the environmental crisis for what it is? Very few.
Certainly not the United States.
We live in a human-created environment where it's very easy to think we're different from other creatures, we're smart, we create our own habitat, we don't need nature.It's the economy that's the most important thing. And in focusing on the economy I think we've forgotten these ancient truths.
These ancient wisdoms that kept us plugged into nature and understanding that "Gee, if we do something to offend the natural world, we'll pay a price for that. We have to treat nature much more gently." That's the lesson that we've forgotten and that we're paying a price for today.
The big rupture(破裂) came in the 1800s, in the 19th century with the steam engine, the fossil-fuel age, the industrial revolution. This was a great rupture from earlier forms and rhythms(节奏) of life which were generally regenerative(再生的). After the industrial revolution, nature was converted to a resource and that resource was seen as, essentially, eternally abundant. This led to the idea and the conception behind progress, which is, limitless growth, limitless expansion.
For all of human history, the vast majority of human history, humans lived on current sunlight.
Sun fell on the fields, the fields grew plants. The plants made cellulose(纤维素), plant matter. Animals ate the cellulose, we ate the plants. We ate the animals. We wore clothing made out of them. We were living off of current sunlight. It was our food supply, our clothing. We heated with wood. It was our heat supply, our light supply. It was all current sunlight.
So the sunlight that fell on Earth in a year was the maximum amount we could use. It was the maximum amount of energy that we could use. And from the earliest evidence of human civilization 150,000 more or less years ago, up until a few thousand years ago, pretty much, that's how we lived. And our population never surpassed a billion people.
And then we began discovering that there were pockets of ancient sunlight and finding coal here and a little bit of oil there. And slowly between that and the agricultural revolution slowly, our population crept(creep爬) up until we hit our first one billion people. And so--It didn't take 100,000 years to go from one billion to two billion. Our second billion only took us 130 years. We hit two billion people in 1930. Our third billion took only 30 years, 1960.
It's amazing when you think about it. When Kennedy was inaugurated(为…举行就职典礼), there were half as many people as today.
The reason that we've been able to have this exponential(指数的) growth of population is because we're creating food and clothing and everything else, transportation. We're doing it all with this ancient sunlight that was stored in the Earth 3 and 400 million years ago.
And if we had to go back to living off current sunlight, lacking technology, the planet couldn't sustain more than a half a billion to a billion people.
So we live in the most unusual period in the history of the planet in terms of a species getting access to energy-rich carbon. What we have done is become good alchemists(炼金术师). The ability to take fossil carbon and turn it into human biomass(生物量). And we have used the supermarket the transportation system, to make that happen. So the cornerstones(奠基石) of this system that we have are all resting(（使）依靠，支撑) upon nonrenewable, energy-rich carbon we call fossil fuels.
The real problem is there are too many of us using too many resources too fast. Now, oil has enabled us to do that.
We use oil to increase the rate at which we extract all other resources everything from topsoil(表土（层）) to fresh water, from aluminum(Al) to zinc(Zn).
Oil is really the basis with which we sustain complexity(复杂性) and with which we solve our problems.
In a sense, all of our lives are subsidized(资助). We are subsidized by oil. Because we're subsidized by oil, when we shop for anything at a store, we don't pay the full price, we don't pay the full cost of what it took to produce that.
We borrow about $800 billion a year from the world tofinance the excess of our consumption over what we produce. And about a third of that, about $250 billion a year, is for oil imports. So we borrow from the world, we issue IOU's(欠条), treasury bills(2短期国库券), whatever, to the tune(程度，数量) of about a billion dollars a day, every working day, anyway to finance our oil imports.
There is a lot of harm that oil does. Economists would call them "externalities"(外在性，客观性) because they're external to the price you pay at the pump(抽水，打气). For example, the asthma(哮喘) rates among children which are growing in many parts of the US. The acid rain problem that's caused by burning coal. If you look at some of the global warming contributions from burning fossil fuels. And at least part of the cost of keeping our troops in the Middle East to safeguard oil assets(资产). Maybe not all of that cost, but at least some is clearly a subsidy(补贴) that goes to oil.
When you started feeding off(2依靠…提供的东西维持（生活）) of the fossil-fuel cycle we began living with a death-based cycle. That death cycle of dependency on extraction(抽出，提炼) of those resources set in motion a sequence(联系) of events that has led us to our modern crisis of global disturbance(骚乱) known as climate change, or global warming, if you will.
We don't know the future. We know the past through Greek mythology(神话).
The kind of revenge of the gods or the revenge of nature. I think we're seeing that now already. After 200 years of the industrial revolution, we didn't know what we were creating, the damage that was being created.
We're sensing that. So as we go forward with technology even more powerful than before we have magnified the presence of the human race inside the ecology. Therefore we can do more damage with our technological prowess(威力) than we could before. We have to be even more cautious.
While we weren't looking we've created one of the biggest problems facing all of humanity: Climate change.
How does it look when we don't pay attention to the massive amounts of CO2 we dump into the air and water?
How does it look when our actions shift the natural chemical balance of our atmosphere into a state several degrees warmer?
A state that hasn't existed for millennia(千年). We have witnessed, in recent years the highest average temperatures in recorded history. A couple of degrees difference in today's temperatures may not sound like much but it only took a few degrees to shift us out of the last ice age. And a few degrees may be all that separates us from catastrophic change.
Heading into another weekend the weather and the climate are making news in more than one region. A terrible drought has already--
We do not know how much our climate could or will change in the future.--
More than a week, severe flooding has killed at least 72 people in Central and Eastern Europe and Western Russia.--
The heaviest recorded rainfall in Indian history has unleashed the worst flooding in memory.--
We do not know how fast change will occur or even how some of our actions could impact it.--
In Chicago, the heat is a plague. This morning, they were collecting bodies.--
Firefighters in Southern California are battling a newly-formed super wildfire.--
The heat is on Colorado. Even Arizona is having a heat wave.--
Tennessee was battered by killer tornados(龙卷风).--
New Orleans is no longer safe to live in. It is that simple, and that stark(荒芜的)--
Hell and high water, one and the same again today, in a city overwhelmed under siege(围攻), in the grip(掌握) of unmitigated(未缓和的，全然的), unprecedented catastrophe(灾难).--
Nowhere is that more apparent than New Orleans, now a city of displaced people, refugees.--
Twenty feet of water from Lake Pontchartrain. Add to that violence, deprivation(掠夺，丧失), desperation, the threat of disease--
Could it be that man-made global warming is the greatest hoax(恶作剧) ever perpetrated(犯（罪），（作恶）) on the American people?
/////to be continued...
我想问那个歪博士所说的话是心感传送么？(a tiny ✖)
求所有配乐曲名+演唱者 @ @(愚人猫)