南北战争在美国的历史上影响深刻，在美国的文学、戏剧上留下了不可磨灭的影响。对于美国的南方文明，首次较为深入的了解依旧离不开Vivien Leigh-< The streetcar named desire>
那时老师要我们把它拍成微电影，一开始确实很不愿意，觉得这是一个非常耗费时间的事情，但为了能够很好地完成一遍遍地看电影，从对Blanch的厌恶到对她的心痛，再到之后对那南方文明的心痛--就像飘开头便点出的主题-the civilization gone with the wind
The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave states over the power of the national government to prohibit slavery in the territories that had not yet become states. When Abraham Lincoln won election in 1860 as the first Republican president on a platform pledging to keep slavery out of the territories, seven slave states in the deep South seceded and formed a new nation, the Confederate States of America. The incoming Lincoln administration and most of the Northern people refused to recognize the legitimacy of secession. They feared that it would discredit democracy and create a fatal precedent that would eventually fragment the no-longer United States into several small, squabbling countries.
Q. What happened to the dead?
Typically, soldiers were buried where they fell on the battlefield. Others were buried near the hospitals where they died. At most battlefields the dead were exhumed and moved to National or Confederate cemeteries, but because there were so many bodies, and because of the time and effort it took to disinter them, there are undoubtedly thousands if not tens of thousands of Civil War soldiers in unknown battlefield graves.
Q. How advanced was medicine during the Civil War?
Two thirds of those killed in the Civil War died of disease. Germ theory had not been widely accepted in the medical world at the time of the Civil War and modern antiseptics, which could have greatly reduced the spread of bacteria and the outbreak of disease, did not exist. As George Worthington Adams famously wrote, “The Civil War was fought in the very last years of the medical middle ages.” Chloroform, ether and whiskey were the main anesthetics. Still, many survived their wounds and had only the dedicated doctors and nurses and their selfless efforts to thank. Medicine is an ever-evolving science. Unfortunately for those who fought in the Civil War, the technology of warfare had surpassed the technology of health care.
Q. How much were soldiers paid?
A white Union private madethirteen dollars a month; his black counterpart made seven dollars until Congress rectified the discrepancy in 1864. A Confederate private ostensibly made eleven dollars a month, but often went long stretches with no pay at all.
Q. What role did African-Americans play in the war effort?
With the issuance of theEmancipation Proclamationin September 1862, African-Americans - both free and runaway slaves - came forward to volunteer for the Union cause in substantial numbers. Beginning in October, approximately 180,000 African-Americans, comprising 163 units, served in the U.S. Army, and 18,000 in the Navy. That month, the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers repulsed a Confederate attack at Island Mound, Missouri. Men of theU.S.C.T.(United States Colored Troops) units went on to distinguish themselves on battlefields east and west - atPort Hudson, Louisiana;Honey Springs, Oklahoma;Fort Wagner, South Carolina;New Market Heights, Virginia. African Americans constituted 10% of the entire Union Army by the end of the war, and nearly 40,000 died over the course of the war.
I'll never be hungry again!