# S02E01 【Change】
One thing is certain, unlike old Doc Frankenstein, we can't exchange our brain for another. Like it or not, we are stuck with the three pounds of cauliflower we were born with.
Can people really change?
Is our personality genetically preprogrammed or is it malleable?
The science of neuroplasticity suggests that our brain has the ability to change and grow through our life.
In essence, our experiences rewire us. They can make us do or think things previously undoable or unthinkable? They can provoke us into forming new thoughts and ideas. And they can teach us valuable lessons making us less inclined to repeat the mistakes of our past.
The brain is in a constant state of flux, suggesting that nothing in life is permament.
And yet, as they say, the more the things change, the more they stay the same.
# S02E02 【Love】
How does love rewire the brain?
When we meet somebody new and exciting, they invade our synapses like a virus, triggering neurochemicals that feed into attraction, arousal, even obsessions.
We get distracted. When you think about that special someone all the time, even in the middle of a brilliant stimulating lecture, we are not just thinking about them, we're building an internal model, a simulation that help us predict what they'll think or how they'll feel.
Of course, relationships get into trouble when the simulatjion meets reality which begs the question, do we really fall in love with another person, or just with our idea of who they are?
Why do we bother with relationships?
Neuropsychiatrists say that we're hardwired to crave intimate connections.
we long for love, of course, the reality is, it usually ends in heartache, leaving our delicate psyches bruised, if not completely shattered.
Why do we even bother playing those odds?
I guess, because we only have to get it right onece. And when it's right, we know it. Even the memory of a fulfilling relaitonship can sustain us. And remind us that, although we maybe feeling down at this particular moment, we've never truly alone.
# S02E03【 vision or illusion】
Human mind has evolved to perceive patter and meaning in almost everything. This tendency is known as "pareidolia".
We see with more than our eyes, we also see with our brains.
"Change blindness" happens when there a change in visual stimulus that goes unnoticed by the observer, because they're focused on other things.
What if I told all of you that you're partially blind, that right now, you think you're seeing the world as it truly is, but in actuality you're missing something. It's true.
See, everytime we open our eyes, light shines onto our retina. Nerve cells called photoreceptores interpret the light, transmit the information to our brain. And that's how we see.
But there's a small area on our retina where there are no photoreceptors. This is called a scotoma, or blind spot. We all have one.
So if that's true, how is it that we never notice a black area in our field of vision?
The reason you never noticed your blind spot is because your brain is great at guessing what should be there and automatically filling in the blank.
Sometimes, we know what we want to see, and our neo-cortex turns that expectation into a kind of virtual reality which means that some of the world we see is really just an illusion.
A scary thought, when you consider how vulnerable that make us.
So how do we uncover our blind spots? how do we ever fully see the truth that's right in front of our eyes?
Well, a good place to start is to simply open your mind, because as the French philosopher Henri Bergson said," The eye sees only the mind is prepared to comprehend".
# S02E04 【Secret】
When you have a dark deep secret, the one you've never told a soul, there's war going on in your brain.
Our best guess is that your cingulate cortex desperately wants to tell the truth, but your orbital prefrontal cortex is simulating how bad things will be if you actually spill the beans.
If your prefrontal cortex wins, your level of stress hormones goes up, if your cingulate cortex wins, your stress level drops.
So, if it's biologically healthies to confess our secrets, what is it about human nature that makes us fight so hard to keep them hidden?
Freud once said"no mortal can keep a secret, if his lips are silient, he chatter with his finger-tips, betrayal oozed out of every pore ". I think old Sigmund might have been onto something.
Although we may be desperate to keep our secrets, the harder we try to bury them, the more the rise to the surface. We are neurologically compelled to confess. And that's a good thing.
Confession is good for the body, for the brain, it might be good for the soul, if you believe in that sort of thing.
"Genetic Sexual attraction"：Our DNA compells us to connect with our genetic tribe. But psychological imprinting and social taboo overwhelm sexual dersire when siblings are raised together.But when two people are unware of their biological bond, they're drawn to each other.
# S02E05【reality or fantasy】
Would it surprise you to learn the world in your mind is mostly a fantasy?
We get to know people by taking a few small cules that we have about them and processing it all throught a neural filter laden with our own personal biases.
We rely on our mind to fill in the blanks of their identity. but who the people in our lives really are, their essence?
That's in their brains, not ours.
The reality is , until the next high school dropout from silicon valley invents a way for us to literally plug into the brains of another person, we can never really know who they are.
All we can do is arm ourselves with what we know to be true, our feelings, love,anger,longing,happiness,fear,friendship, these are the brain's guidance system, it's true north.
And if we can manage to trust them, they can usually help us find what we're looking for.
大脑不仅帮助我们感知physical world，还帮助我们建立mental world。
physical world是靠视觉、听觉、触觉等知觉感知建立的，也就是人类达成共识的山川河流、日月星辰的这个physical world。
——正好在读的《making up the mind》
Hemispherectomy is used to remove the diseased left half of the brain. Amazingly, speech and other functions once controlled by the left hemisphere, will eventually develop in the right.
Hemispherectomies not only save lives, they also show us that to be fully human only takes half a brain.
As for the rest of you, does that mean you have a lot more brain power than you really need? or does it mean that you have vast amounts of unrealized potential?
why are humans constantly striving for improvement?
much of our ambition is driven by our large prefrontal cortex,which is why we're in this classroom and not in the jungle eating bananas.
Everyday, we dream about new technological advancements,upgraded cellphones, faster computers, new medical techniques.
Science seems to have unlimited potential, and many of these advancements really do make our lives better.
Sometimes, I think in our striving for improvement,we lose sight of something just as important.maybe we should try to accept what's already pretty good about ourselves.
And not everything needs fixing, Morzart's music is 200 years old. it doesn't require any upgrade, it's perfect just the way it is.
案件中的DBS，deep brain stimulator，微创方式安装在人脑中，用电动力控制脑部出现的tremor或seizure，以此帮助病人。
#S02E07 【miracle or mistake】
we want to believe that the brain is all-powerful, that there is nothing we can't learn, nothing we can't conquer if we just set our minds to it .
but despite the brain's elegance and effiency,there is some things the power of the mind just cannot do.sometimes when we're faced with an intractable problem,it is not brain that can solve it ,it is the heart.
比如，这里面的没死于脑癌却死于枪击的倒霉蛋，忍受不了脑癌的痛苦，求助于NeuroPositive Integration coach。
Hope abounds in the world of neurotherapy thanks to embryonic cells in the brain known as neuroblasts. These tiny miracles form in the subventricle zone after a stroke, then zip over to the damaged tissue and make repairs.
Amazing，the brain has its own pit crew.
Now, neuroblast research is still in its infancy. but someday，instead of managing brain degeneration with medication, we may be able to help the brain heal itself.
life awaits.Meaningful friendships,inspiring work,independence,your place in the world,they're all just waiting outside your door.
Now imagine if that door was locked.
No key, side exits, you're trapped, while everybody else blossoms around you.
That's what it feels like growing up with a mental illness.
So, while Gamma knife surgery can disable the neurological circuit where this patient's OCD impulses form, it can make up for the lost time.
Of course, there are plenty of mental illnesses can not be fixed with surgery, but as Mr. Lewicki discovered during the weekend, neurologists are a crazy bunch, crazy enough to believe that if you could discover a viable cure for one illness, then eventually, you'll discover a cure for the next one, which means there's hope for all of us.
案例是，美国女战斗英雄被富二代战友强奸后，被传染了herpes virus（type II），更悲催的是，病毒进入大脑，引发了脑膜炎。
脑部发炎肿胀，使得病人表现出neurobehavioral disorder，即克鲁尔-布西症候群（Klüver-Bucy Syndrome），具体表现是，无法遏制自己的各种冲动（such as compulsive sexual behavior, oral fixation, lack of fear, the mood-swings），尤其以性冲动和往嘴里乱塞东西为代表。
这些症状的出现，一般意味着大脑的颞叶区（the temporal lobes）受损.
There can be a second act for the brain，known as Acquired Savant Syndrome（后天性学者症候群）——devastated by injury, the brains of ordinary people can develop amazing new skills.
for example, a high school dropout is savagely attacked,he awakens able to draw mathematically accurate fractals by hand.
After a stroke, a doctor with no previous interest in art becomes a gifted painter, whose work adorns gallery walls and magazine pages.
So if our brains can have a second act, why not our lives?